Banner & Appendix

Knowledge DB

Genomics DB



Grant Sponsors and Gov. Organization



Department of Chemitry

International Journal

British Journal of Pharmacology
년도 2022
학술지명 British Journal of Pharmacology
논문명 Control of hippocampal prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2) expression reduces neurotoxic symptoms in five familialAlzheimer's disease mice
게재권/집 Published vol.179 / no.5 / 998-1016
Link 관련링크 709회 연결

Background and Purpose
There is a scarcity of information regarding the role of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which can be generated by active thrombin, in hippocampal neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Experimental Approach
To assess the role of pKr-2 in association with the neurotoxic symptoms of AD, we determined pKr-2 protein levels in post-mortem hippocampal tissues of patients with AD and the hippocampi of five familial AD (5XFAD) mice compared with those of age-matched controls and wild-type (WT) mice, respectively. In addition, we investigated whether the hippocampal neurodegeneration and object memory impairments shown in 5XFAD mice were mediated by changes to pKr-2 up-regulation.

Key Results
Our results demonstrated that pKr-2 was up-regulated in the hippocampi of patients with AD and 5XFAD mice, but was not associated with amyloid-β aggregation in 5XFAD mice. The up-regulation of pKr-2 expression was inhibited by preservation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) via addition of caffeine to their water supply or by treatment with rivaroxaban, an inhibitor of factor Xa that is associated with thrombin production. Moreover, the prevention of up-regulation of pKr-2 expression reduced neurotoxic symptoms, such as hippocampal neurodegeneration and object recognition decline due to neurotoxic inflammatory responses in 5XFAD mice.

Conclusion and Implications
We identified a novel pathological mechanism of AD mediated by abnormal accumulation of pKr-2, which functions as an important pathogenic factor in the adult brain via blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Thus, pKr-2 represents a novel target for AD therapeutic strategies and those for related conditions.